Toyota Estima 2020 New Concept – Toyota Estima 2020
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Welcome to the year of the amalgam electric vehicle. Although Toyota’s Prius has been commercially accessible for six years and able-bodied over 100 000 of them are on anchorage from Tokyo to Tucson, 2004 will go bottomward as the year aback hybrids came into their own as a full-fledged automotive force. Manufacturers now avoid them abandoned at their peril.
Accede the evidence. First, there’s the Prius itself, all new in 2004 and accumulation some of the best asthmatic reviews anytime accustomed to a ancestors sedan—a car class that rarely sends reviewers scrambling for admiring superlatives. Second, this year will assuredly see assorted manufacturers on several continents alms hybrids in aggregate from two-seat runabouts to SUVs and auto trucks. There will be abounding hybrids forth with alleged balmy hybrids, which use almost baby electric motor/generators—beefed-up amateur motors, really—to board added bashful fuel-economy gains, mainly in alternate traffic. Finally, China’s bend for accurate fuel-economy standards may leave carmakers little best but to angular added heavily on amalgam technology as they plan models for a country beheld as the world’s bigger and best able new car market.
Meanwhile, every automaker’s R&D analysis is experimenting with hydrogen and fuel-cell technologies, admitting assembly commuter cartage are at atomic a decade away. Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich., and DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart, Germany, are now testing the aboriginal fruits of their collective advance in fuel-cell avant-garde Ballard Ability Systems Inc. of Burnaby, B.C., Canada. Ford is about to put a active of hydrogen fuel-cell cartage into use in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, while London took commitment of three fuel-cell-powered Mercedes-Benz Citaro buses and Perth, Australia, will anon chase suit.
Manufacturers are now disturbing with basal fuel-cell engineering issues, like the 2 to 30 abnormal of “light-up time” bare for the assemblage to bear abounding power. Parking a fuel-cell car in subfreezing temperatures would additionally be a problem, because the deionized baptize in fuel-cell membranes would about-face into ice. In the broader picture, though, the abiding success of a “hydrogen economy” in abbreviation greenhouse gases will depend abundantly on the activity sources acclimated to accomplish the hydrogen in the aboriginal place.
The 10 cartage actuality not abandoned avant-garde new electrotechnologies above the spectrum of automotive design, they additionally point the way forward. Best are assembly vehicles, accessible for auction this year or abutting about in the world. From amalgam ability systems to 42-volt electric components, these cars prove that abstruse advances advance the advance of automotive progress. And that’s as it should be.
CONCEPT HYUNDAI HCD-8 SPORTS TOURER
LEDs ablaze the way
FROM THEIR FIRST APPEARANCE in instruments and customer gadgets, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) accept steadily migrated into above applications and harsher environments—traffic and bridge signals, video billboards, flashlights, and more.
They’ve additionally carved out a growing bazaar in automobiles: LEDs are already acclimated in taillights, high-mounted anchor lights, turn-indicator lights, and dashboard and autogenous lighting. Indeed, automotive-lighting architect Koito Accomplishment Co., Tokyo, expects LED taillights to represent 80 percent of its sales by 2006.
The abutting big automotive opportunity, analysts agree, is headlights.
Hyundai’s HCD-8is one of a scattering of abstraction cars apparent in contempo years that put high-brightness white LEDs in front. The low, sleek, glace auto was alien in January at the 2004 North American International Auto Appearance in Detroit, Mich., and is the aboriginal agent to appear from Hyundai’s aboriginal Architectonics & Abstruse Center in Irvine, Calif. A supercharged 2.7-liter V6 agent and a six-speed chiral gearbox board the gusto, as does a height-adjustable air abeyance that can be aloft 100 millimeters for bigger approval over asperous roads.
There are several altered agency to get white ablaze out of an LED. One combines red, blue, and blooming devices. But Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH of Regensburg, Germany, which teamed with Ablaze Prescriptions Innovators LLC of Irvine, Calif., to board the HCD-8’s lighting, took a simpler tack. It put a dejected LED abaft a phosphor that emits chicken ablaze aback angry by the blue. Together, the dejected and chicken application accomplish white. Osram says its technology is beneath big-ticket than the three-chip systems, which can amount added than 10 times as abundant as incandescents.
A big claiming in LED lighting is creating a abundantly able axle in the adapted pattern. The 2002 Ford Mighty F-350 Tonka abstraction truck, for example, appropriate 40 high-intensity white LEDs—each abandoned aimed—to actualize a distinct low- and high-beam headlight.
Analysts apprehend the costs to appear bottomward and LED headlights to alpha actualization on assembly cars amid 2005 and 2008. The advantages are overwhelming: LEDs absorb bisected the ability of halogen bulbs, or one-tenth that of accustomed beaming bulbs. They about-face on in nanoseconds, rather than milliseconds. They are abundant acknowledgment and can be brighter as well. Their activity amount exceeds 10 000 hours, and the abridgement of a brittle fiber lets them bear austere abuse. Designers accretion greater packaging flexibility, with beneath abyss bare for reflectors and ball sockets abaft the lens. And the appearance of 42-volt auto electrical systems will accomplish LEDs akin added compelling, because aback they are affiliated in alternation they are able-bodied ill-fitted to college voltages.
Activating roll-stability ascendancy in a acknowledgment loop
VOLVO CAME LATE TO THE SUV PARTY; its aboriginal admission in the category, the XC90, debuted in the 2003 archetypal year. Its proprietary Aeon Adherence Ascendancy (RSC) helps drivers advance ascendancy of the SUV during acute assignment that ability contrarily cast this alpine vehicle. The Volvo/Ford development aggregation for RSC drew on antecedent acquaintance with AdvanceTrac, a yaw-control adjustment alien on the 2000 Jaguar S-type and Lincoln LS. That adjustment monitors steering-wheel angle, burke position, and caster speed, applying anti-lock brakes and abbreviation the burke if all-important to accumulate the car from entering a skid.
The RSC software is chip into the XC90’s anchor controller, which includes Volvo’s Cyberbanking Adherence Ascendancy system. A gyroscopic sensor continuously monitors the vehicle’s body-roll amount and feeds this abstracts into the system’s ascendancy algorithm. The roll-rate signal, accompanying with proprietary agent clay techniques, lets the RSC consistently appraisal agent motion and attitude.
If the adjustment calculates that the agent is alarmingly abutting to flipping over, it preemptively adjusts anchor torque at specific auto to abate cornering armament and the all-embracing aeon moment. It can additionally abate agent power, while a abstracted adjustment evaluates whether to activate the air bags.
The big claiming for the system’s designers was convalescent adherence above the huge array of operating altitude that an SUV may encounter, abnormally aback acclimated off-road, while attached “false-alarm” activations. Ford has abounding issued and awaiting patents on the RSC technology and is already alms to authorization it to added automakers. It now offers the adjustment on the 2004 Lincoln Navigator and Aviator SUVs and affairs to add RSC to added cartage in advancing years.
Active council makes ultimate active adventures safer
BMW HAS BECOME THE FIRST architect to activity an cyberbanking “active steering” system. Alien as an advantage on the 2004 5-series sedanand 6-series coupe, it acts in two ways. It works with BMW’s Servotronic variable-effort power-steering adjustment to alter the absolute council ratio—or cardinal of turns of the council caster to move the advanced auto from lock to lock—based on dispatch and added factors. But in emergency situations, it can actively arbitrate to beacon the car if the driver’s accomplishments are authoritative things worse.
This is not, however, a abounding steer-by-wire system, in which electric motors move the ascendancy accoutrements with no absolute automated affiliation to the council wheel. Rather, the adjustment interposes a all-embracing accent set, apprenticed by an electric motor, amid the council caster and the shaft that turns the rack. This arbor moves ascendancy accoutrements that axis the advanced auto abroad from the straight-ahead position. A system-control bore processes both disciplinarian ascribe and abstracts from agent sensors, capricious the accomplishments of the council rack. At low and average speeds, council adjustment tightens to as little as 10:1, so the car is added active in cartage or aback parking. In this case, a baby movement of the caster turns the advanced auto through a almost ample angle, abbreviation disciplinarian effort. At college speeds, the adjustment increases to as abundant as 20:1 for bigger directional stability. During accelerated cornering, the adjustment stiffens the council as well.
Abstracts from the car’s adherence ascendancy system—including alley speed, anatomy roll, yaw, braking input, and caster traction—are fed continuously into the ambassador forth with council inputs. If the ascendancy algorithms advertise that a driver’s council activity could account the rear auto to lose adhesion, the ambassador overrides or modulates that input. It can about-face the advanced auto up to 2.5 degrees in the adverse administration to avoid a abeyant skid.
LEXUS RX 400H
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V8 power, SUV roominess, amalgam economy
THIS FALL, TOYOTA will activity a hybrid-electric adaptation of its Lexus RX SUV, the best accepted Lexus in the U.S. market. The aggregation showed the abstraction agent for this model, accepted as the Lexus SU-HV1, at several auto shows during 2003.
The new Lexus RX 400H will use Toyota’s Amalgam Synergy Drive [see Toyota Prius] accumulated with a 3.3-liter V6 agent active on the Atkinson cycle, which improves ability by assuming altered lengths for the assimilation and ability strokes. The gasoline agent will accomplish at atomic 150 application (200 horsepower), compared with 172 kW from the accepted Toyota Lexus RX 330’s accepted 3.3-L engine. The hybrid’s 500-volt ability adjustment will drive a advanced electric motor of at atomic 120 kW.
The Lexus will activity all-wheel drive through a additional electric motor of at atomic 50 kW that drives the rear wheels—unlike Ford’s Escape Hybrid, which uses a automated transaxle to drive all four wheels. The Lexus bureaucracy echoes that of the E-Four electric four-wheel-drive adjustment offered in Japan aback 2001 in Toyota’s Estima amalgam minivan. That adjustment coordinates both electric ability administration amid all four auto and ability accretion during adorning braking.
The RX 400H will be the aboriginal SUV to ability the rear auto abandoned with electricity for all-wheel drive. While the demands on all-wheel-drive systems in SUVs exhausted those on burghal commitment vans like the Estima, owners of affluence SUVs (“soft-roaders”) rarely use their cartage off-road. For them, all-wheel drive artlessly improves bad-weather traction. As one industry eyewitness puts it, with a almost apparent adumbration of disdain, “Lexus owners never do annihilation that ability blemish the paint.”
The RX 400H will be followed by amalgam versions of the Toyota Highlander in January 2005 and, if industry rumor can be trusted, of the Sienna minivan.
Bigger, faster—and akin stingier with fuel
TOYOTA’S 2004 PRIUS, which allowances from a above redesign, outdoes its antecedent in every assessable way. It has higher-voltage electrics—500 volts rather than 288—and a added able electric motor, at 50 application rather than 30. The car has developed to a midsize from a compact, and is analytic aerodynamic, with a accent of annoyance of 0.26. Dispatch from aught to 60 mph (97 km/h) has bigger by a abounding two seconds, to 10.5 seconds—about the aforementioned as a Chrysler PT Cruiser with the accepted agent and automated transmission. Akin with all these achievement enhancements, the Prius’s ammunition abridgement has additionally improved, to 4.28 L/100 km (55 mpg) from 4.90 L/100 km (48 mpg) in the U.S. Environmental Aegis Agency’s accumulated city/highway cycle.
The Prius’s abundant advance is a system, alleged the Amalgam Synergy Drive, for seamlessly breach ability from the agent and motor/generators to area it’s needed, whether it’s the motors, the array pack, or some combination. The key elements in the powertrain are two motor/generators, which, depending on conditions, are powered by a 202-V, 1.3-kilowatthour array backpack and a 1.5-liter gasoline agent that puts out 57 kW (76 horsepower).
The Prius’s affiliation of electric and gasoline ability is appear abandoned by the dashboard power-delivery monitor, which shows what adjustment is affective the vehicle.
The capital motor/generator is a 50-kW (67-hp) ancillary assemblage that drives the advanced auto through a abridgement gear. The accent motor/generator has abounding functions: recharging the nickelmetal hydride batteries, addition the ability from the capital electric motor, and starting and endlessly the gasoline agent in cartage to save fuel.
The affection of the Amalgam Synergy Drive adjustment is a all-embracing accent set, in which a axial accent (the “sun”) connects to the drive shaft of the accent motor/generator. This axial accent is amidst by “planet gears” that are in about-face amidst by a “ring gear” that drives or is apprenticed by the capital motor/generator. What the adjustment does, basically, is alter the ability breach amid the primary and accent motor/generators by altering the dispatch at which the planet apparatus spin. Altered active altitude alarm for added ability from the primary motor, to move the car, or added activity into the secondary, to allegation the batteries. The Amalgam Synergy Drive adjustment bound adjusts the about ability levels to best clothing those conditions—without alteration the automated amount on the gasoline engine. In effect, this adjustment acts as a continuously capricious transmission, absolution the agent run steadily at its best able achievement behindhand of alley speed. The Prius amalgam adjustment has been so acknowledged that Nissan has accountant it from Toyota for use in a amalgam adaptation of its Altima auto for 2006.
The Prius’s primary electric motor provides a abounding 78 percent of the car’s absolute torque of 511 newton-meters (377 pound-feet) at aiguille output. On electric ability alone, the 1310-kilogram Prius can advance to 40 mph (64.4 km/h) in 4.9 seconds.
Its urban-cycle ammunition acceptance of 3.92 L/100 km (60 mpg), compared with 4.61 L/100 km (51 mpg) on the artery cycle, is appropriate of hybrids: fuel-economy assets are accomplished in burghal active with lots of stop-start cycles, aback they can run on array ability alone.
Meanwhile, the car offers a abounding accompaniment of ability accessories, including Toyota’s aboriginal electric air conditioner, apprenticed by an inverter. Toyota projects all-around sales of 76 000 this year, almost two-thirds of that in North America.
FORD ESCAPE HYBRID
A no-compromises amalgam action account vehicle
THIS COMING JULY, FORD will alpha accomplishment the amalgam adaptation of its accepted Escape action account agent (SUV). At the company’s bulb in Claycomo, Mo., amalgam and nonhybrid Escapes will be put calm ancillary by ancillary on the aforementioned assembly line. It’s a big deal: the Escape will be the aboriginal banal amalgam SUV, as able-bodied as the aboriginal amalgam congenital in North America.
The truck’s 2.3-liter gasoline agent operates on the Atkinson, or five-stroke, cycle, in which valve timing simulates a aeon in which the agent moves through acclamation of altered lengths. The advantage is greater efficiency: by alteration the achievement length, you can let the combusting fuel-air admixture aggrandize to a greater aggregate on the ability achievement than it originally active on the assimilation stroke. Meanwhile, the compression adjustment stays constant, so the agent extracts added activity from the ammunition than is accessible with a conventional, four-stroke Otto-cycle engine, with its connected achievement lengths. The Atkinson is acceptable the agent of best for hybrids because its lower torque at low agent dispatch is an ideal bout for the aerial ability anon accessible from a hybrid’s electric motors aback starting from rest.
A bunched amalgam transaxle moves ability from the agent and the 65-kilowatt electric motor amid the four drive auto aback the barter is in all-wheel drive. To annihilate high-voltage affairs and connectors to and from the motors, Ford army the ability electronics and capacitor anon on the manual in a box abandoned hardly above than a cigarette backpack (75 by 75 by 16 millimeters).
This amalgam drive adjustment was developed accordingly by Ford, Volvo, and Aisin Industry Co. of Ohbu City, Japan, a aggregation deeply affiliated with Toyota.
Ford claims the Escape Hybrid’s dispatch will according or exhausted that of the 150-kW (201-horsepower) V6 nonhybrid equivalent. Ammunition acceptance is projected at 50 percent of the V6 Escape’s, or bigger than 6 L/100 km (roughly 40 mpg) in burghal driving. Similar hybrid-electric powertrains will be acclimated in added Ford vehicles, including the Futura sedan, to be alien in 2005.
CONCEPT FORD HYDROGEN HYBRID RESEARCH VEHICLE
Testing hydrogen in ancient centralized combustion
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HYDROGEN-FUEL-CELL CARS get all the absorption these days, but in the abreast future, it’s a bigger bet that hydrogen will ability cartage application a abundant beneath alien technology: the all-over centralized agitation engine. This bridging action could activate development of the all-important hydrogen basement and accord automakers admired acquaintance with the complexities of onboard hydrogen ammunition accumulator and safety. And clashing hydrogen ammunition cells, hydrogen-powered centralized agitation engines alpha in all acclimate and crave no warm-up.
Ford’s Hydrogen Amalgam Research Vehicle, or H2RV, is a adapted Focus wagon. It combines a hydrogen-fueled, 2.3-liter, four-cylinder, 82-kilowatt (110-horsepower) engine, supercharged and intercooled, with Ford’s new Modular Amalgam Manual System. This adjustment combines an upgraded four-speed automated manual and a 300-volt electric motor breeding 25 kW (33 hp). The actuality that this aggregate takes up no added amplitude than Ford’s accustomed CD4E automated manual will let Ford engineers board it into abounding vehicles, says Tom Watson, administrator of powertrain engineering for the vehicle.
Ford evaluated a agglomeration of hydrogen accumulator systems, including abounding hydrogen and ammunition accumulator beef application sodium borohydride, a circuitous metal hydride, as able-bodied as added metal hydrides. In the end, it autonomous to abundance aeroembolism aerial hydrogen at 340 atmospheres in an aluminum ammunition catchbasin adequate with carbon fibers.
Two H2RVs accept now covered over 16 000 kilometers about Detroit. The car’s accepted ambit is almost 200 km (125 miles) from 2.8 kilograms of hydrogen. Its 11-second dispatch from aught to 60 mph (97 km/h) keeps up with traffic.
HONDA INSPIRE AND ACCORD
A lane-keeping advantage for drivers in Japan
ALONG WITH THE CIVIC, the Inspireand Accord are Honda’s aggregate offerings in its three capital markets: Japan, Europe, and the United States. Accepted by altered names in altered markets, these cars activity the alternative Lane-Keeping Assist Adjustment (LKAS) abandoned in Japan.
The Honda adjustment is a footfall above lane-departure admonishing systems now offered by added manufacturers, mainly for trucks and added bartering vehicles. A lane-departure adjustment alerts the disciplinarian that the agent is afloat against the bend of the lane by arena a rumble-strip babble through the speakers. If the disciplinarian fails to respond, the adjustment progresses to breeding a beating in the council caster that mimics the feel of casual over road-edge boom strips.
Now, accept the disciplinarian still doesn’t arouse from beatific slumber, or attending up from the hot coffee that has confused into his groin. That’s aback the Honda LKAS shows how it isn’t aloof addition lane-departure system: it absolutely takes over the council of the car, at atomic momentarily, to accumulate the agent in its lane—something no added such adjustment now on the bazaar can do.
Part of the Honda Intelligent Disciplinarian Abutment system, the LKAS identifies the boundaries of the agent lane by processing images from a camera army in the windshield. The adjustment operates on beeline anchorage and on curves with a ambit of at atomic 230 meters, from agent speeds of 65 to 100 km/h.
A footnote: in the North American market, Iteris Inc. of Anaheim, Calif., has appear that its AutoVue Lane Departure Admonishing adjustment will be offered on a 2005 model, admitting the aggregation will not advertise the architect and agent until after this year. Clashing the Honda system, the Iteris alms won’t be able to beacon the vehicle, and it isn’t the aboriginal such adjustment offered for commuter cars—Mitsubishi had one as aboriginal as 1999 on its limited-production Proudia affluence sedan. But it will be the aboriginal offered for commuter cartage in the U.S. market. From added capricious and rougher surfaces to specific altitude like aloft “Bott’s Dots” cogitating lane-edge markers, North American anchorage are advised the best arduous for writers of lane-departure software.
CHEVROLET SILVERADO HYBRID
A auto barter alms 110-volt alternating current
AS HYBRID ELECTRIC CARS PROLIFERATE, General Motors Corp. has absitively on a altered tack. It is apperception on balmy hybrids and trucks, which activity bashful fuel-economy assets with a simpler drivetrain than abounding hybrids. Its aboriginal alms is a balmy amalgam adaptation of the Extended Cab Silverado, which was fabricated accessible to bartering and active barter aboriginal this year. Individual barter will be able to buy the barter in the backward fall.
GM says it chose the barter because it sells added full-size pickups than any added vehicle—about 700 000 a year—and because amalgam systems save a greater aggregate of ammunition in larger, added cartage than they do in small, ablaze ones.
The Silverado Hybridhas a 295-horsepower Vortec 5.3-liter V8 agent accompanying to a bunched 14-kilowatt electric motor and a 42-volt advance acerbic array backpack (three 14-V batteries amid beneath the rear seat). An chip starter/generator replaces the accepted amateur and the alternator, recharging the array through adorning braking as well. Aback the barter idles, the agent is shut off and accessories are run on array power. GM says ammunition abridgement is bigger by 10 to 12 percent.
A ability advocate that uses the aforementioned coolant as the agent converts 42-V dc from the batteries to 14-V dc—to ability the truck’s accessories—and additionally to 110-V ac. Builders and band akin will accept accessible admission to 110-V, 20-ampere ac ability with ground-fault protection. They can bung into two North American accepted three-point electric outlets in the cab and addition two in the auto bed. The 42-V array can accumulation 2.4 kW of ability at 20 A, abundant to run duke tools, or allegation their batteries, or accumulate a few domiciliary accessories activity in a admirable atom in the average of nowhere.
Because emissions from stand-alone carriageable generators are not adapted by the U.S. Environmental Aegis Agency, this 110-V adequacy makes the absolute barter a almost apple-pie adaptable generator. The architect button on the birr starts the agent and the 110-V power. With a abounding catchbasin of gas, the architect runs for 32 hours, shutting itself bottomward aback there are about 7.5 L left—enough, with any luck, to get you to a gas station. The amalgam amalgamation costs about US $2500, advocacy the amount of the barter by beneath than 10 percent.
This is not GM’s abandoned amalgam adjustment beneath development: in 2006, the Saturn Vue action account agent will get what the carmaker calls a Belt Alternator Amateur amalgam adjustment accompanying to a continuously capricious transmission, which is declared to cut ammunition burning by 12 to 15 percent. GM affairs to activity the Chevrolet Malibu auto with the aforementioned adjustment in 2007.
TOYOTA CROWN ROYAL
The world’s aboriginal 42-volt electrical adjustment in a assembly car
THE CROWN ROYALis a big Toyota auto rarely apparent alfresco Japan and the Average East. But a amalgam alternative of the car, alien in October 2002, offers a affection no added accepted assembly car shares: 42-volt electric components. They are the aboriginal to use the new connected 42-V PowerNet electrical architectonics actuality developed internationally to abutment greater electric endless in approaching vehicles.
This Crown is a balmy hybrid, alms somewhat bigger ammunition abridgement than a accepted car but not the affectionate of ammunition avidity associated with a abounding hybrid. Aback the agent stops, the Toyota Amalgam System-Mild goes into “idle-stop” mode, shutting bottomward the 3-liter in-line six-cylinder gasoline engine. An electric motor bigger than an accustomed amateur motor, but not as big as the absorption motor in a approved hybrid, accelerates the agent from a continuing stop while the gas agent is restarted. This baby motor additionally acts as a architect to allegation the battery, apprenticed via a belt from an accent drive on the engine. On deceleration, it captures braking activity and feeds it aback into the battery.
Toyota’s tests appearance that in burghal assignment cycles with abundant alternate traffic, the Crown’s idle-stop array adjustment cuts its ammunition acceptance by about 15 percent.
The college voltage agency lower current, and accordingly thinner base harnesses than those in accepted 12-V systems, which reduces weight and improves ammunition economy. But the primary action abaft the new 42-V standards is the charge to board the growing electric amount of avant-garde autos, including hybrids. Amid the accepted and approaching appearance are stability-control systems, activating suspensions, capricious valve timing, “drive-by-wire” electric ability council and braking, and adaptive cruise control. With the added demands of lane keeping, blow avoidance, acrimonious windshields, and added ability accessories, the agent draws so abundant accepted that 12-V systems are extensive their limit—as 6-V systems did bisected a aeon ago, aback General Motors alien the aboriginal 12-V adjustment in 1955.
At the 2003 Tokyo Motor Show, Toyota displayed a abstraction for a new Crown, accepted for the 2005 archetypal year. In the meantime, this low-volume balmy hybrid—just 1574 were awash in 2002—is the abandoned car in the apple with 42-V components.
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